Graphic design is an art, discipline and academic field whose activity is focused on creating visual communication that is intended to transmit certain messages to various social groups, usually with defined goals. The use of graphic design involves the application of many different types of visual communication arts, such as painting, drawing, photography, printmaking, sculpture, and video production. One of the most important principles of graphic design is the use of unity of form, which is often referred to as toning or sharpening. In general graphic design communicates the message by means of images, shapes and color schemes.
The visual identity graphic designers must build upon prior to communicating it to the mass audience. The history of graphic design as an artform has been the result of continual attempts to improve the visual communication through the various mediums available to the artist. In order for an artist to build a solid foundation, his or her work must be examined thoroughly through various disciplines to ensure that it meets certain standards.
Another fundamental principle of graphic design is white space. White space is essential to building a visual image and allows the artist to construct an outline around a specific subject, idea or concept without cluttering the picture with visual noise. Unlike traditional black-and-white photography, digital images do not utilize backgrounds to help the viewer to recognize objects. Because of this, there is no need to place text or images around the image to make it meaningful. This principle is used by many successful advertising campaigns as well as most newspapers and magazines, which emphasize their content through clear white space, without the distraction of other elements.